Notes on the history of Ancient Chinese Literature: The creation of drama in southern Drama Circle
After the Yuan dynasty defeated the Southern Song Dynasty, zaju moved to the southern drama circle centered on Hangzhou.Section one The southward movement and decline of zaju.Zaju moved southward mainly along the Grand Canal and the Yangtze River.(1) Hangzhou, Yangzhou, Jiankang, Pingjiang (Suzhou), Songjiang and so on are the places where miscellaneous operas gather.(2) Factors of southward movement: 1. The south army and the south migrant population — drama audience.2. Zaju is an art form integrating rap, song and dance and performance with a generous musical tone.3. Population mobility and politics promoted the convergence of languages in south Beijing Language University, forming the “mandarin” system, which is not unfamiliar with central Plains language.4. Hangzhou gulanhuashe numerous, to provide performance venues.Ii. Three development stages of the drama activities in southern theater circle: (1) Stage 1:From Shizu to The 13th Year of yuan (1276) to Dade (1297 ~ 1307).2. Representative writers are well-known writers in the north, such as Guan Hanqing’s Wangjiang Pavilion.(2) The second stage: 1. The period from Wuzong to Da (1308 ~ 1311) to Wenzong Tianli (1328 ~ 1330) to Shun (1331 ~ 1332).2. Zheng Guangzu, Qiao Ji, Gong Dayong and Qin Jianfu are from the north, and their main creative activities are in the south;The south, such as Jin Renjie, Qu Zijing, became a new force in the creation of zaju.3. Zaju and sanqu are regarded as authentic “Yuefu”. For example, Zhou Deqing wrote the Song of Central Plains, which summarized the rhyme of Northern Opera, and Zhong Sicheng wrote the book of Ghosts, which described zaju writers, summarizing and commenting on zaju and exploring theories and experiences.(1) The style tends to be elegant, and the themes are mostly literati romance and fairy way seclusion;(2) Ethical themes are strengthened, and positive spirit is dissipated.(3) Pay equal attention to “true colors” and “when the line”, and focus on rhetoric, the stage of the play has been neglected.(3) The Third stage: In the Early Ming Dynasty (1331-1368), Zaju declined.Three. Reasons for the decline of zaju: (1) system defects: the form of a lead singer has traces of rap literature, which limits the play;The fourth fold was a spent force.(2) The southern opera system is better.Section 2 Zheng Guangzu I.Zheng Guangzu, alias Dehui, is the most outstanding playwright in southern drama circle.(1) Zhou Deqing’s Zhongyuan Rhymes juxtises him with Guan, Ma and Bai.(2) I have written 18 kinds of drama, including 8 kinds of drama, such as “A Beautiful Girl Leaving her Soul”, “ Mei Xiang”, “Wang Can Climb the Tower”, “Regent of The Duke of Zhou” and “Yi Yin Fu Tang”.(3) the second edition: the yuan drama writers used the same theme for the drama, the later version is the second edition;Zheng plays are mostly secondary.A Beautiful Girl leaving her Soul (1) Out of the legend of Xuanyou Tang Chen left her Soul.(2) Based on the works of Zhao Gongfu at the beginning of yuan Dynasty and related rap materials, Zhang Qian, Wang Wenju.(3) Romantic love story.1. The beautiful girl soul represents women’s desire and pursuit of love and marriage, boldly breaking through the concept of ethics and eloping with her sweetheart.In reality, the beauty body can only bear parting sorrow don’t hate the torture, sick body wan.3. Women’s real situation in feudal times was that they both longed for love and marriage and faced the imprison of ethics.4. The soul of a beautiful girl embodies the female mentality of breaking free from the shackles of ethics;The body of the beautiful girl disease shows that women are helpless under ethical teachings.(4) The words are beautiful and the characters are detailed.Wang Guowei: “This kind of word such as projectile out of hand, posterity is incapable of battle.” Mei Xiang — a love drama imitated the Romance of the Western Chamber.(1) Tang Pei du’s daughter Xiaoman and Bai Min zhong’s love story, the protagonist is maidservant Fan Su.(2) Different from The Romance of the Western Chamber: 1. Compress the contents of the five books of the Western Chamber into one.2. It only describes young men and women’s affection and propriety. Although they pursue love, they do not go beyond the scope of ethics.3. Fan Su sings bai Wenyan, citing classics, with literati atmosphere, inconsistent with his status.4. Reflect the influence of traditional ideological laziness on the creation of southern writers.Four. “Wang Can climb the stairs” according to Wang Can “Climb the stairs fu” fiction.(a) the plot is plain, the characters are general, but the prose is straight and straight, quite touching power.(2) Wang Can’s resentment is also the author’s feelings of dwelling in a foreign land, downcast and unfulfilled all his life. It is the portrayal of the mood of the literati drifting from the north to the south in the Yuan Dynasty.Section 3 Georgie and miyatan stand one.Qiao Ji, the character Meng Fu, the title sheng Crane Weng, also known as the Xing Daoren.(1) There are 11 kinds of plays, including Marriage between Two Generations, Yangzhou Dream and Money, all of which take the love stories of talents and beautiful women as the theme. The style is close to Zheng Guangzu’s, but the language is more clear and beautiful.(2) Masterpiece Marriage between Two Peoples was written in Tang Fanshu’s Yunxi Youyi, about Wei Gao and Han Yuxiao’s love.1. The plot is twisty and dramatic.2. Quci falls and falls, quite a lot of beautiful words.A Love story from Tang Han Hong and Liu Mei From Hong Kong.1. To give money string as a token, throughout the overall situation.2. The plot is compact, interlocking and tortuous, suitable for the stage.(four) “Yangzhou Dream” play Tang Du Mu (” Diaohuai “) story, pull together Du Mu and Zhang Good romance, write their own situation, in line with the yuan literati romantic self-admiration ethos.Two. Gong Tianting, the character is big and useful.(1) There are 6 kinds of drama, including 2 kinds of fan Zhang Ji Shu and Qili Tan.(2) Fan Zhang Ji Shu is adapted from the Biography of Fan Fan of The Later Han Dynasty to write the story of Fan Fan and Zhang Shao.1. Praise the sincerity of friendship while attacking the darkness of official career.2. The words are fierce and lively.(3) In “Qili Tan”, Yan Ziling declined Emperor Guangwu Liu Xiu.1. Using the past to satirize the present, it reflects the indignation and disappointment of the dark politics of reality and expresses the yearning for the life of a hermit.2. It was the general tendency of intellectuals in the late Yuan Dynasty to turn to seclusion and leave the world because they were dissatisfied with reality.3. Gong Zuo is passionate and bold, and his writing power is vivid. Wang Guowei is “thin and hard, and unique” (An Article of Yuan Opera examination of Song and Yuan Dynasties).Section 4 Jin Renjie Yang Zi Qin Jianfu.Kim In-kit, styled Ji-fu.(1) 7 kinds of drama, all of which are historical themes;(2) Today’s “Xiao He Yue Chasing han Xin”.1. Han Xin’s depression and hesitation when writing chu and Han Dynasties, especially the dilemma of fame and wealth.2. The prose is simple and forceful.Such as the second set [Shuanggao · Xinshuiling], kunqu opera has been sung until modern times.3. Zhong Sicheng “although she is not pian Li, she has much to recommend her” (Record ghost Book).Yang Zi was the highest official among the yuan drama writers, and she was named Kang Hui.(1) There are three kinds of miscellaneous plays: Respect for Virtue but Not For Old Age, Yurang Swallowed Charcoal and Huo Guang Ghost Admonition.(2) “Jingde not Fu Old” is a story about Chi Gong, a Tang lieutenant, which is adapted from historical books and folklore.(3) “Yu Rang Swallowed charcoal” wrote the warring States Yu Rang repay zhi Bo story, emphasizing the word “righteousness”.(4) Han Huo Guang was played in Huo Guang Ghost Admonition, highlighting the character of “loyalty”.Qin Jianfu – the representative of guan Hanqing in the late Yuan Dynasty.(1) He has written 5 kinds of drama, of which there are 3 kinds: Dong Tang Lao, Zhao Li Let Fat and Cut hair to Wait for guests.(2) “Dong Tang Lao” is the most distinctive.1. Write about zhao Guoqi, a rich merchant in Yangzhou, his son, a Slave in Yangzhou, and his good friend Li Shi (” Dongtang Lao “).2. In traditional literary creation, businessmen are always ridiculed and criticized: businessmen and rich people are either greedy and mean like Zheng Tingyu’s “Watching the Money Slave”;It is true, but it reflects the traditional concept of disregarding commodity economy and the narrow mentality of seeking fame as the right way.3. For the first time, “Dongtang Lao” positively portrays The image of Li Shi, a businessman who is honest, sincere and trustworthy, and who is not greedy for money;Affirming the legitimacy of commercial behavior and deeply sympathizing with the hardships of businessmen, which is close to the trend of modern progress.4. Old Dongtang was not shy about his pursuit of money, claiming that he was proud of acquiring property through legitimate means, talent and hard work, and changing his social status.Denying the idea that the rich and the poor are all subject to fate, affirming the life attitude and positive enterprising spirit of the merchant class, which reflects the outlook on life and morality of the yuan merchants and handicraft owners.5. One of the more realistic works of the Yuan Zaju: a true depiction of how honest businessmen face the dangers of business and secular prejudice.6. It was written by Qin after his travels in southern China.(3) Cut hair and Wait for Guests is based on The Biography of Tao Kan in the Book of Jin dynasty.1. While showing the traditional moral connotation of “mother is virtuous and son is filial”, the fictional “extremely rich rich lady” Han.2. Comedy is actually a realistic portrayal of the marriage between scholars and merchants in the Yuan Dynasty.(4) Qin Jianfu’s works touch on many moral concepts of The Times.3. In the southern drama circle in the late Period of the Middle Yuan Dynasty, other influential plays include Xiao Dexiang’s Killing a Dog to Persuade her Husband, Wang Ye’s A Peach Blossom Girl Who Broke the Law to Marry The Duke of Zhou, Fan Kang’s Chen Jiqing’s Bamboo Leaf Boat, and Zhu Kai’s Liu Xuande’s Drunk Walking away from the Yellow Crane Tower, etc., but their overall achievements are not high.