Who said “a Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains” is a Ming and Qing fake painting?
Wang Shiyue/Liu Xinyu, a Chinese ice dance group, dressed in a Chinese-style costume with a picture of A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains, made an appearance in the Winter Olympic Games. The long artistic mood of the classical landscape was imprinted on the ice and the best ranking of Chinese ice dance was updated.In the Spring Festival Gala in 2022, the dance and poetry drama “Only This Green”, from “A Panorama of Rivers and Mountains”, also amazed the audience with its green and rich Chinese aesthetics.How charming is a Panorama of Rivers and Mountains?Why pass through the dust of history, cause posterity to pay tribute frequently?Experience hidden, stolen, scattered among the people, to enter the Palace Museum again, “A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains” why the life is confusing?Thepaper.cn invited art historian Zhao Hua to talk about the mystery behind “A Thousand Rivers and Mountains.”Original or fake?It’s hard to change the name: Why do people say that a Panorama of Rivers and Mountains is a fake painting from the Ming and Qing dynasties?What is the story of its birth?Zhao Hua: Any ancient painting and calligraphy have aesthetic, inheritance and other defects and flaws, then any ancient painting and calligraphy will be falsified, if someone raises questions to judge the forgery, then the world will not have an authentic work at all.There should be ample evidence to question the old broad consensus and the new broad consensus to overturn the old broad consensus.To judge the authenticity of an ancient painting and calligraphy, the first thing is to grasp the main contradiction and look at the unforgeable part, that is, the superb artistic level and the unique exclusive artistic style.Secondly, we should understand the general imitator is what level, top imitator and imitation, what level, what characteristics, how big the gap, where the bottleneck;If we have a comprehensive understanding of the above problems, we can find that the average person greatly overestimates the level of forgers.A Panorama of Rivers and Mountains by Wang Ximeng of the Song Dynasty, collected by the Palace Museum in Beijing, takes the panorama of Rivers and Mountains as an example to sort out the high-level painters in the whole green landscape and see who can reach the level of the Panorama of Rivers and Mountains.Can enmity be attained?Can’t.If Qiu Ying could not, it would have been difficult for other first-class painters of the Ming and Qing Dynasties to reach the level of a Panorama of Rivers and Mountains.Then look at supporting evidence and logic.”Shou Guogong book seal” is a rare seal, only five years ago to find out the comparison of fan Zhongyan’s “Tao Fu Zan”.The Qing Dynasty did not even release the interpretation, do such an unpopular “no master seal” what is the motive?”□□ temple treasure” is also a rare print, has been mistakenly recognized by all people as “Jixi temple treasure”, Liang Qingbiao will do a seal they do not know, cover not to sell to keep the family?”□□ Dian Treasure” local special processing high-definition image to see the material, “Thousands of Miles of Rivers and Mountains” 50 cm wide, 12 meters long whole silk, silk grain density 1 cm more than 50 silk, song Dynasty folk, Yuan Ming and Qing dynasties top calligrapher and painter are not so good silk, where to find such materials forgers.The painter may have all kinds of defects, but the forger is not omnipotent, and the proof of the forgery must be based on evidence and logic.If you want to explore the story of the birth of “Thousands of miles of Rivers and Mountains”, only the 77 words of CAI Jing’s postscript can be examined, and can be divided into twenty or thirty key words to explain and extend one by one in detail and comprehensively.Check the background of the whole era by the year of the work, and then check the work by the whole era.I think it can be understood from the institutional perspective of painting, painting academy, child prodigy, literary library and other institutions, and we can investigate various aspects of social life at that time in combination with Wang Ximeng’s age and identity.At present, there is no new literature, so we can only enrich these 77 characters through the environment.I recommend reading teacher Yu Hui’s book “A Hundred questions and a Thousand Miles”, in which he also provides a good idea.CAI Jing cut himself with a pencil at the end of the book “A Panorama of Rivers and Mountains” : It is said that the author of the picture originally had only “Ximeng”, how did he become “Wang Ximeng”?Zhao Hua: “A thousand miles of rivers and Mountains” this picture is really only CAI Jing inscription on the Chinese characters “Ximeng”, the earliest mention of “Wang Ximeng” three words from liang Qing title written outside the sign, because the sign is Liang Qing title written, so in recent years there have been all kinds of speculation.The spread of real ancient calligraphy and painting scrolls, because of constant wear and tear, the most easily destroyed is the external signature.In the process of re-mounting, most ancient paintings and calligraphy will be re-inscribed according to the damaged outer stickers of the previous mounting.More important several large-scale change of signature records such as: 1, Carefully, “Qi Dongye Yu” volume six “Shaoxing Imperial house painting and calligraphy style” article: Gaozong’s request for calligraphy and painting, “all the predecessors are removed”, “if there is xuan he imperial book title, parallel removal is not needed”.2. According to the Secretary Jian Zhi written by Wang Shidian, on March 21, the third year of Yanyou (1316), Emperor Renzong issued a decree in the Jiaxi Palace:”There are some calligraphy and painting in the secretary’s supervision without stickers, teach Zhao Zi Ang to write”;Yuan Nei fu’s painting and calligraphy, such as the Palace Museum collection “Tian Li This LAN Ting Preface”, there is song Lian’s postscript on the back, or for moving it, called zhao Meng ð« this was headed by Zhao Meng ð today’s Yuan Nei fu painting and calligraphy, zhao Meng ð« this is gone upLiang Qing wrote the title of “Thousands of miles of rivers and Mountains” sign the ancient practice in today’s eyes may feel very “non-standard”, today’s food, drugs can be hit on the TWO-DIMENSIONAL code, accident is easy to trace the source.Ancient calligraphy and painting survive to today, most of the spread of records are incomplete, not “standard”.To treat historical problems, not because the ancients “non-standard” do not play two-dimensional code, to judge a widespread consensus handed down as fake and shoddy.We can only use the norms and conventions of the ancients to investigate the ancients, doubt the broad consensus should be sufficient evidence, overturn the old broad consensus should be based on the new broad consensus.Generally speaking, there is no interest, no motive to tamper with the impulse of the original author, especially the so-called “change” or “random name” of “Wang Ximeng” in the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties is not well-known, can not generate significant interests, and “A Thousand Miles of Rivers and Mountains” by the Liang family collection handed down, and there is no profit intention.If there is no sufficient evidence, we should think that Liang Qingbiao replaced the foreign signature according to the general procedure at that time.In the original letters, there would also be information about the author’s life, important collectors, and important characters and postscripts. In song And Song Dynasty poems, the information that Wang Ximeng died early at the age of 20 May also come from the letters before Liang Qingbiao changed them.It’s the most plausible explanation given the evidence and logic.What about the appraisal of ancient painting and calligraphy?Qingfengyang: What interdisciplinary knowledge is needed to do ancient painting and calligraphy appraisal?Like chemistry?Zhao Hua: The object of appraisal of ancient calligraphy and painting is art, but appraisal itself is not art, but science.Traditional identification includes identification of artistic styles, seals, inscriptions, postscripts, mounting, materials, historical knowledge and so on.In the interdisciplinary aspect, the first is scientific thought, all the scientific thoughts in the natural science disciplines are interlinked and can be used for reference.High-quality identification should be scientific, with five characteristics: first, identification should have the correct view of truth and falsehood, refer to the previous question and answer;Secondly, phenomena and features must be accurately described and defined.Third, description and conclusion should be reproducible, reproducibility is objectivity, the subject (I) can see red, guests (others) can also see red, this is objectivity;Fourth, the identification conclusion should be falsifiable, avoiding subjective identification and adjective identification;Fifthly, the appraisal should be independent and the appraisal conclusion should be prophetic. It is impossible for any appraisal to have complete evidence, but the correct appraisal must be proved by future evidence here, which is prophetic.Artistic feeling exists objectively in a part of people, and if this part of people just don’t have the technology of objective description, then science leaves another channel for feeling, that is predictability.For example, as you mentioned in chemistry, chemistry itself has a branch of “appraisal,” called “analytical chemistry,” which uses the same ideas.Chemical analysis and physical analysis of specific applications, detection technology is not the problem, how to sample, to illustrate how “sampling” is the first big problem, the ancient painting and calligraphy by physical and chemical “pollution is extremely serious,” chance is very strong, difficult to set up exclusive in physical and chemical characteristics, as well as physical and chemical properties in installment and pu,Only with the breakthrough of sampling technology and sample pretreatment technology can it be used for the identification of ancient paintings and calligraphy. I am a chemistry major, so I personally am pessimistic.In terms of some specific disciplines, I am more optimistic about computer image processing, computer-aided measurement, statistics and other disciplines. In the current transformation from traditional identification to scientific identification, image processing and statistical analysis are still weak links and promising.Do you have any questions about the identification of ancient paintings and calligraphies?Welcome to ask questions on thepaper.cn, or leave comments to discuss!(This article is from thepaper.cn. For more original news, please download thepaper.cn APP.)